Terms & Conditions

  • GENERAL

    • 1.1

      The website BitStarz is operated by Direx Limited, Stasinou 1, MITSI Building 1, 1st Floor, Flat/Office 4, Plateia Eleftherias, Nicosia, Cyprus (“Company”) and all game content is licensed through the Direx NV, Wilhelminalaan 13, Willemstad, Curaçao. Registration number 131879., a company registered by the Government of Curaçao, as an Information Provider legally authorized to conduct online egaming operations from Curaçao. Egaming Licensing and Supervision is provided by Antillephone N.V.

    • 1.2

      These Terms and Conditions (“T&C”) apply to the usage of the Games through Bitstarz.com (“Website”) through related enabling internet, mobile or other platforms by you (“You” or “the Player”).

    • 1.3

      These T&C constitute a binding agreement between You and Bitstarz.com.

    • 1.4

      These T&C come into force as soon as you click on the “ACCEPT” button, by doing which you signify to Bitstarz.com that you have read these T&C and accept them. By using any of the Website you signify that you agree with these T&C.

    • 1.5

      You must read these T&C carefully in their entirety before clicking on the “I accept terms and condition” button. If you do not agree with any provision of these T&C you must not use or continue to use the Website.

    • 1.6

      You fully understand and agree to be bound by the terms and conditions contained herein and as may be amended by Us from time to time.

    • 1.7

      Bitstarz.com reserves the right to modify and amend this Agreement at any time with or without notice.

    • 1.8

      Rules and explanations in respect to the games provided separately on the Website are incorporated into these T&C by reference.

  • ELIGIBILITY TO USE BITSTARZ.COM’S SERVICES:

    • 2.1

      You may participate in any of the Games if and only if:

      • 2.1.1

        You are over eighteen (18) years of age or such higher minimum legal age of majority as stipulated in the jurisdiction of Your residence; and

      • 2.1.2

        It is legal for You to participate in the Games according to applicable laws in the jurisdiction of your residence.

    • 2.2

      It is entirely and solely Your responsibility to enquire and ensure that You do not breach laws applicable to you by participating in the Games.

  • YOUR MEMBER ACCOUNT

    • 3.1

      REGISTRATION AND OPENING OF YOUR MEMBER ACCOUNT

      • 3.1.1

        In order for you to be able to place wagers using any of the Website, you must first register with bitstarz.com and open an account (“Member Account”).

      • 3.1.2

        You are allowed to have only one Member Account. Only one Account for each household, IP, PC is allowed. If you attempt to open more than one Member Account, all accounts you try to open may be blocked or closed and any bets may be voided. Also any returns, deposits, winnings or bonuses which you have gained or accrued during such time as the Duplicate Account was active will be forfeited by you and may be reclaimed by us, and you will return to us on demand any such funds which have been withdrawn from the Duplicate Account. If you wish to open another account, you may do so by contacting the Manager at support@bitstarz.com. If a new account is opened, the old account will be closed. If you notice that you have more than one registered Member Account you must notify us immediately. Failure to do so may lead to your Member account being blocked for access.

      • 3.1.3

        You must enter all mandatory information requested into your registration form, including a valid e-mail address; if you do not enter a valid email address, we will be unable to help you recover any “forgotten passwords”. It is your sole responsibility to ensure that the information you provide is true, complete and correct.

      • 3.1.4

        As part of the registration process You will have to choose Your username and password for Your login into the Website. It is Your sole and exclusive responsibility to ensure that Your login details are kept securely. You must not disclose Your login details to anyone. Bitstarz.com is not responsible for any abuse or misuse of Your Member Account by third parties due to Your disclosure, whether intentional or accidental, whether active or passive, of your login details to any third party.

      • 3.1.5

        Bitstarz.com reserves the right to refuse to register an Account or close Your Account. However all virtual funds within Your Account will be returned and all contractual obligations already made honoured.

      • 3.1.6

        Bitstarz.com prohibits player collusion and do not allow any kind of robots and programmed devices to participate in game play. Bitstarz.com reserves the right to void any game play which results from the use of robots and/or programmed devices.

      • 3.1.7

        If you are a player from Spain, the UK, US or any of its states, you won't be allowed to play real money wagering games including bitcoins.

      • 3.1.8

        Upon requesting a self exclusion, BitStarz will immediately close that account and prevent the player to play on that particular account. It's the player's responsibility to notify BitStarz of any other accounts the player might have and promise not to open any other accounts. BitStarz will make reasonable efforts to try to prevent the opening of new accounts but it's the player's sole responsiblity to make sure no other accounts are created. BitStarz cannot be held accountable for potential losses on other accounts.

      • 3.1.9

        As a player, you have the opportunity to put a loss limit on your account (among other limits). To clarify the functionality of this limit, the loss is based on the deposit made by the player and not winnings attributed to the deposited amount. If a player for example deposits €50, has a loss limit of €10 and the player goes on and wins €1,000, the player can still lose more than €10 of the €1,000 balance as it's based on the initial deposit instead of the winnings.

      • 3.10

        Kindly note that due to the nature of Bitcoin, deposit limits are not possible for this particular currency. We do offer the facility to take a break from gambling however, and if you need any help applying this, we kindly ask you to contact us.

      • 3.11

        For transaction security, we use SSL encryption. All customer data will be treated as confidential and will not be sold to third parties.

    • 3.2

      DEPOSITS INTO YOUR MEMBER ACCOUNT

      • 3.2.1

        You may only participate in Games if you have sufficient Virtual Funds on Your Member Account for such participation. For the avoidance of doubt, Virtual Funds shall mean Bitcoins or any other currency. Bitstarz.com will not grant any form of virtual credit whatsoever for participation in any of the Games.

      • 3.2.2

        Bitstarz.com can, under certain circumstances, credit a player’s account with so called “bonus”. The conditions for the crediting of the bonus (e.g. First Deposit Bonus) and the amount of the bonus is determined by Bitstarz.com and set out on the website from time to time. For promotions that are currently running please follow this link: /top-promotions If an account contains both the Virtual Funds and bonus funds, the bonus funds will only be available for wagering once the existing Virtual Funds have been used. Before fulfilling the bonus turnover conditions if you transfer or withdraw the main deposit amount, bonus funds and all winnings from this bonus will be forfeited.

      • 3.2.3

        To deposit Virtual Funds into your Member Account, you can transfer Virtual Funds from your personal wallets or other Virtual Funds related accounts.

      • 3.2.4

        Bitstarz.com is not a financial institution and thus should not be treated as such. Your account will not bear any interests.

      • 3.2.5

        Deposited amounts are available on the Account within a reasonable amount of time after the confirmation of the deposit. Before a withdrawal can be made, all previous deposits need to be confirmed.

      • 3.2.6

        We reserve the right to use additional procedures and means to verify your identity (Know Your Client) when effecting deposits into your Account. This could include (but is not limited to) a selfie with a document or form of identification.

      • 3.2.7

        It's the responsibility of the player to ensure that all documents as a part of the KYC processs are genuine. Faked or fraudulent documents provided may result in a confiscation of deposits and potential winnings of the player.

      • 3.2.8

        Bitstarz.com is not an exchange and therefore does not execute any converstion between Bitcoin and any Fiat currency.

      • 3.2.9

        Kindly note that bonuses come with specific bonus terms and conditions ("Bonus Terms and Conditions"). These can be found here.

      • 3.2.10

        We reserve the right make a phone call to the number provided in your member account, which at our own discretion can be a necessary part of the KYC procedure. Until the account is fully verified, no cashouts will be processed. In case the provided phone number is incorrect, missing or false or the player will not answer the phone call, we reserve the right to confiscate your winnings and/or disable your member account. We'll make resonable efforts trying to contact you regarding the withdrawal of the funds, but if we are not able to reach you (by email or phone) in two weeks, the funds will be retained by BitStarz Casino, since you have failed to pass the KYC procedure.

      • 3.2.11

        You may only use your own personal credit/debit card or other payment method to fund your Account. The name appearing on the credit cards, or registered on the payment accounts used for deposits or payouts must correspond to the name registered on your Account.

    • 3.3

      WITHDRAWALS FROM YOUR MEMBER ACCOUNT

      • 3.3.1

        While Bitstarz.com will endeavour to pay out withdrawals immediately, some withdrawals may take longer than others. Bitstarz.com shall try to pay out withdrawals within 1 hour, however in some cases, withdrawals may take longer; this would clearly be stated when you choose a method of withdrawal.

      • 3.3.2

        Bitcoin withdrawals will be made to your stated Bitstarz.com wallet. To withdraw any Virtual Funds which have been deposited, we require the block chain to give at a minimum 1 confirmation of your last deposit, before a withdrawal can be made. If you deposit with a small mining fee, 1 confirmation can take up to 20 min.

      • 3.3.3

        If we mistakenly credit your Member Account with winnings that do not belong to you, whether due to a technical, error in the pay-tables, or human error or otherwise, the amount will remain our property and will be deducted from your Member Account. If you have withdrawn funds that do not belong to you prior to us becoming aware of the error, the mistakenly paid amount will (without prejudice to other remedies and actions that may be available at law) constitute a debt owed by you to us. In the event of an incorrect crediting, you are obliged to notify us immediately by email.

      • 3.3.4

        You acknowledge that the Virtual Funds are consumed instantly and Bitstarz.com do not provide for refunds or cancellation. Bitstarz.com reserves the right to payout substantial wins in monthly installments.

      • 3.3.5

        BitStarz agents reserve the right to carry out additional verification procedures for any pay-out exceeding the equivalent of 1000 Euro / 3 BTC or cumulative withdrawals exceeding 2300 Euro / 7 BTC, and further reserves the right to carry out such verification procedures also in case of lower pay-outs. Such verifications may for example include copies of a player’s passport, national Identity Card, copies of a player’s utility bills, and/or copies of the debit/credit cards used to deposit.

      • 3.3.6

        If you win more than 40 Bitcoins or €15,000, we reserve the right to divide the pay out into monthly instalments of 40 BTC or €15,000 until the full amount is paid out. Due to restrictions of the payment processor the minimum withdrawal amount processed via Wire Transfer is 500 €/$/£. For transactions within EU the minimum withdrawal amount processed with Wire Transfer is 100€/$/£. Maximum withdrawal amount processed to a player is 7500 €/$/£ or 20 BTC per 7 days and 15000 €/$/£ or 40 BTC per 30 days, unless otherwise specified in the promotional Terms & Conditions, where exceptions can be made to players with a higher VIP status and players who win a progressive jackpot.

      • 3.3.7

        In order to make a withdrawal, a player playing with traditional currencies (EUR, AUD, USD, CAD, GBP, SEK, NOK, CNY) must play through active deposited amounts at least once prior to withdrawal. BTC players need to play through active deposited funds at least 3 times prior to withdrawing due to higher risk of fraud. If you are a table games player, 10x needs to be wagered, regardless of currency. This procedure is in line with anti money laundring practices. The player is fully responsible for paying all fees and taxes applied to their winnings according to the laws of the jurisdiction of the player’s residence.

      • 3.3.8

        The website supports payouts via Original Credit Transfer (OCT) from Visa and via Payment Transfer from Mastercard. Additional requirements are that the respective credit card is not a corporate credit card and the card is issued in a supported country. For Visa, the following countries are not supported: USA, Australia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore. For Mastercard, the following countries are supported: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and United Kingdom. Please note that even for supported countries the WEBSITE is not able to guarantee successful credit card payment processing in all cases, since banks issuing credit cards may block or reject such transactions at their own discretion. Please note that the internal operating currency of the website is Euro. If you transact in other currencies, the amount deducted from your credit card may be insignificantly higher than displayed at the time of transaction due to currency conversions on the side of your bank and/or website's payment processing system.

      • 3.3.9

        Kindly note that Bank Transfers are unfortunately not available for players from Germany. Players from Germany will have to use a different option for withdrawal purposes.

    • 3.4

      CLOSING OF ACCOUNT

      • 3.4.1

        You may close Your account by contacting customer support. Bitstarz.com will return to You any and all funds from Your Member Account subject to the deduction of relevant withdrawal charges. The method of repayment will be at our absolute discretion.

      • 3.4.2

        Bitstarz.com reserves the right to close Your Member Account and to refund to You the "Account balance", subject to the deduction of relevant withdrawal charges, at Bitstarz.com’s absolute discretion and without any obligation to state a reason or give prior notice

      • 3.4.3

        If You do not log onto Your Member Account via the internet, using Your "User Name" and "Password" for a period of one (1) year, all balances may be removed from Your account after a notification has been sent to the registered e-mail address.

  • YOUR OBLIGATIONS AS A PLAYER

    • 4.1

      You hereby declare and warrant that:

      • 4.1.1

        You are over 18 years of age or such higher minimum legal age of majority as stipulated if the jurisdiction of Your residence (e.g. Estonia – 21 years) and, under the laws applicable to You, legally allowed to participate in the Games offered on the Website.

      • 4.1.2

        You participate in the Games strictly in your personal non-professional capacity for recreational and entertainment reasons only;

      • 4.1.3

        You participate in the Games on your own behalf and not on behalf of any other person;

      • 4.1.4

        All information that You provide to Bitstarz.com during the term of validity of this agreement is true, complete, and correct, and that You shall immediately notify Bitstarz.com of any change of such information;

      • 4.1.5

        You are solely responsible for reporting and accounting for any taxes applicable to You under relevant laws for any winnings that You receive from Bitstarz.com;

      • 4.1.6

        You understand that by participating in the Games you take the risk of losing Virtual Funds deposited into Your Member Account;

      • 4.1.7

        You shall not be involved in any fraudulent, collusive, fixing or other unlawful activity in relation to Your or third parties’ participation in any of the Games and shall not use any software-assisted methods or techniques or hardware devices for Your participation in any of the Games. Bitstarz.com hereby reserves the right to invalidate any wager in the event of such behaviour;

      • 4.1.8

        You understand that Virtual Funds as Bitcoin are not considered a legal currency or tender and as such on the Website they are treated as virtual funds with no intrinsic value.

      • 4.1.9

        You understand that Bitcoin value can change dramatically depending on the market value.

      • 4.1.10

        You are not allowed to use any payment methods that belong to a Third party or person.

    • 4.2

      You are not allowed to transfer Virtual Funds from your Account to other players or to receive Virtual Funds from other players into your Account, or to transfer, sell and/or acquire, user accounts.

    • 4.3

      Games played on Our site should be played in the same manner as games played in any other setting. This means that players should be courteous to each other and avoid rude or obscene comments.

    • 4.4

      Some circumstances may arise where a wager is confirmed, or a payment is performed, by us in error. In all these cases Bitstarz.com reserves the right to cancel all the wagers accepted containing such an error, or to correct the mistake made re-settling all the wagers at the correct prices/spreads/terms that should have been available at the time that the wager was placed in the absence of the error.

    • 4.5

      Should the user become aware of possible errors or incompleteness in the software, he/she agrees to refrain from taking advantage of them. Moreover, the user agrees to report any error or incompleteness immediately to Bitstarz.com. Should the user fail to fulfil the obligations stated in this clause, Bitstarz.com has a right to full compensation for all costs related to the error or incompleteness, including any costs incurred in association with the respective error/incompleteness and the failed notification by the user.

    • 4.6

      In the event a game is started but miscarries because of a failure of the system, Bitstarz.com shall refund the amount wagered in the game to the User by crediting it to the User’s Account or, if the account no longer exists, by paying it to the User in an approved manner; and if the User has an accrued credit at the time the game miscarried, credit to the User’s Account the monetary value of the credit or, if the account no longer exists, pay it to the User in an approved manner.

    • 4.7

      Bitstarz.com reserves the right to reject or limit wagers. The user is not permitted to wager an amount exceeding his/her personal account. Wins are credited to the personal account of the user.

    • 4.8

      Bitstarz.com reserves the right to retain payments, if suspicion or evidence exists of manipulation of the casino system. Criminal charges will be brought against any user or any other person(s), who has/have manipulated the casino system or attempted to do so. Bitstarz.com reserves the right to terminate and/or, change any games or events being offered on the Website.

    • 4.9

      We reserve the right to require some verification in case of suspicious or fraudulent transactions.

    • 4.10

      Bitstarz.com reserves the right to declare a wager void partially or in full if Bitstarz.com, at its own discretion, would deem it obvious that any of the following circumstances have occurred:

      • 4.10.1

        You, or people associated with you may directly or indirectly influence the outcome of an event, to obtain an unlawful advantage,

      • 4.10.2

        You and or people associated with you are directly or indirectly avoiding the rules of Bitstarz.com,

      • 4.10.3

        the result of an event has been directly or indirectly affected by criminal activity,

      • 4.10.4

        wagers have been placed that would not have been accepted otherwise, but that were accepted during periods when the website have been affected by technical problems,

      • 4.10.5

        due to an error, such as a mistake, misprint, technical error, force majeure or otherwise, wagers have been offered, placed and or accepted due to this error.

      • 4.10.6

        If a player's deposit fee is too low and is flagged by blockchain or similar site as “not enough fee to relay” BitStarz reserve the right to confiscate the winnings if BitStarz at their own discretion deem the transaction and behavior of the player to be fraudulent in nature.

  • ADVANTAGE PLAY

    • Should the Casino become aware of any user who has accepted the bonus or a promotion with sole purpose of creating a positive expected value on bonus return by using known practices aimed at securing a cash out of said bonus or at any way try to take advantage of bonuses received by BitStarz, then BitStarz will enforce immediate confiscation of winnings and closure of the account with the right to withhold any further withdrawals. An example of advantage play would be delaying any game round in any game, including free spins features and bonus features, to a later time when you have no more wagering requirement and/or performing new deposit(s) while having free spins features or bonus features still available in a game. In the interests of fair gaming, equal, zero or low margin bets or hedge betting, shall all be considered irregular gaming for bonus play-through requirement purposes. Should the Casino deem that irregular game play has occurred, the Casino reserves the right to withhold any withdrawals and/or confiscate all winnings

  • PRIVACY POLICY

    • 5.1

      You hereby acknowledge and accept that it is necessary for Bitstarz.com to collect and otherwise use Your personal data in order to allow You access and use of the Website and participation in the Games.

    • 5.2

      Bitstarz.com hereby acknowledges that in collecting Your personal details as stated in the previous provision, We are bound by the Data Protection legislation. Bitstarz.com will protect your personal information and respect your privacy in accordance with best business practices and applicable laws.

    • 5.3

      Bitstarz.com will only use Your personal data to allow you to participate in the Games and to carry out operations relevant to Your participation in the Games. All members of the staff shall have access to Your personal data for the purpose of performing their duties.

    • 5.4

      Your personal data will not be disclosed to third parties, unless such disclosure is necessary for processing of your requests in relation to Your participation in the Games. You hereby consent to such disclosures.

    • 5.5

      As an individual you may exercise your right to access the data held about you by Bitstarz.com by submitting your request in writing. Although all reasonable efforts will be made to keep your information updated, you are kindly requested to inform us of any change referring to the personal data held by Bitstarz.com. In any case if you consider that certain information about you is inaccurate, you may request rectification of such data. You also have the right to request the blocking or erasure of data which has been processed unlawfully.

    • 5.6

      In order to make Your visit to the Website more user-friendly, to keep track of visits to the Website and to improve the service, Bitstarz.com collects a small piece of information sent from Your browser, called a cookie. You can, if you wish, turn off the collection of cookies (please refer to your browser instructions as to how to do this). You must note, however, that turning off cookies may restrict Your use of the Website.

    • 5.7

      We may also inform you of changes, new services and promotions We think that You may find interesting. If you do not wish to receive direct marketing data you may opt out of such service through the member account.

  • COMPLAINTS

    • 6.1

      You may contact our customer service according to the instructions located at the Website to give us any complaints regarding our services.

    • 6.2

      Complaints are handled in the support department and escalated in the organisation of Bitstarz.com in the case that support personnel do not solve the case immediately. The player shall be informed about the state of the complaint to a reasonable level.

    • 6.3

      In the event of any dispute, you agree that the records of the server shall act as the final authority in determining the outcome of any claim.

    • 6.4

      You agree that in the unlikely event of a disagreement between the result that appears on your screen and the game server, the result that appears on the game server will prevail, and you acknowledge and agree that our records will be the final authority in determining the terms and circumstances of your participation in the relevant online gaming activity and the results of this participation.

    • 6.5

      When we wish to contact you regarding such a dispute, we will do so by using any of Your Contact Details.

  • LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

    • 7.1

      You enter the Website and participate in the Games at your own risk. The Website and the Games are provided without any warranty whatsoever, whether express or implied.

    • 7.2

      Without prejudice to the generality of the preceding provision, Bitstarz.com, its directors, employees, partners, service providers:

      • 7.2.1

        do not warrant that the software or the Website is/are fit for their purpose;

      • 7.2.2

        do not warrant that the software and Website are free from errors;

      • 7.2.3

        do not warrant that the Website and/or Games will be accessible without interruptions;

      • 7.2.4

        shall not be liable for any loss, costs, expenses or damages, whether direct, indirect, special, consequential, incidental or otherwise, arising in relation to Your use of the Website or Your participation in the Games.

    • 7.3

      You hereby agree to fully indemnify and hold harmless Bitstarz.com, its directors, employees, partners, and service providers for any cost, expense, loss, damages, claims and liabilities howsoever caused that may arise in relation to your use of the Website or participation in the Games.

  • BREACHES, PENALTIES AND TERMINATION

    • 8.1

      If You breach any provision of these T&C or Bitstarz.com has a reasonable ground to suspect that You have breached them, Bitstarz.com reserves the right not to open, suspend, close Your Member Account, withhold payment of your winnings and apply such funds on account of any damages due by You.

    • 8.2

      You acknowledge that Bitstarz.com shall be the final decision-maker of whether you have violated Bitstarz.com’s rules, terms or conditions in a manner that results in your suspension or permanent barring from participation in our site.

  • INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    • 9.1

      All website design, text, graphics, music, sound, photographs, video, the selection and arrangement thereof, software compilations, underlying source code, software and all other material contained within the Website are subject to copyright and other proprietary rights which are either owned by us or used under licence from third party rights owners. To the extent that any material contained on the Website may be downloaded or printed then such material may be downloaded to a single personal computer only and hard copy portions may be printed solely for your own personal and non-commercial use.

    • 9.2

      Under no circumstances shall the use of the Website grant to any user any interest in any intellectual property rights (for example copyright, know-how or trademarks) owned by us or by any third party whatsoever.

    • 9.3

      No rights whatsoever are granted to use or reproduce any trade names, trademarks or logos which appear on the Website except as specifically permitted in accordance with the Terms of Use.

  • SEVERABILITY

    • 10.1

      If any provision of these T&C is held to be illegal or unenforceable, such provision shall be severed form these T&C and all other provisions shall remain in force unaffected by such severance.

  • INACTIVE/DORMANT PLAYER ACCOUNTS

    • 11.1

      If no transaction has been made to your player account at BitStarz in thirty months, your account will be deemed as dormant and we will return your balance back to you. We'll make resonable efforts trying to contact you regarding the withdrawal of the funds, but if we are not able to reach you, the funds will be retained by BitStarz Casino as an admin fee.

    • 11.2

      An inactive Account is a Player Account which a player has not logged into or logged out of for twelve consecutive months. If your Player Account is deemed to be inactive, BitStarz reserves the right to charge a monthly administrative fee of €10 or the equivalent in another currency (or the current balance of your Player Account, if less) as long as the balance of your Player Account remains positive. You authorize BitStarz to debit this fee from your Player Account on the beginning of the month following the day on which your Player Account is deemed inactive, and on the beginning of every subsequent month that your PLayer Account remains inactive. BitStarz will stop deducting the fee if the account balance is zero or if the account is re-activated.

  • ASSIGNMENT

    • 12.1

      Bitstarz.com reserves the right to assign or otherwise lawfully transfer this Agreement. You shall not assign or otherwise transfer this Agreement.

  • APPLICABLE LAW AND JURISDICTION

    • 13.1

      The Terms and Conditions stipulated below are effective as of September 22nd, 2014. Before using the website BitStarz, please read Terms and Conditions carefully. The fact of using the website confirms your consent with the Terms and Conditions.

    • 13.2

      Do you have any questions regarding the terms and conditions? Do they sound very bureaucratic and confusing? They're not meant to, but if you feel that way, please contact our support heroes via live chat or support@bitstarz.com. They're available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, even on Christmas Eve, so you might as well come and say hello!

    • Last updated: March 16th, 2017